Friday, July 17, 2020
Equine Therapy for Mental Health Benefits and Things to Consider Stress Management Household Stress Print Using Equine Therapy as Mental Health Treatment What Horses Bring to the Therapeutic Process By Jodi Clarke, MA, LPC/MHSP twitter linkedin Jodi Clarke, LPC/MHSP is a licensed professional counselor and mental health service provider with over 20 years of experience in the field. Learn about our editorial policy Jodi Clarke, MA, LPC/MHSP Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on January 21, 2019 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on March 15, 2019 More in Stress Management Household Stress Effects on Health Management Techniques Situational Stress Job Stress Relationship Stress In This Article Table of Contents Expand Overview Benefits Conditions Equine-Assisted Therapy Considerations View All Back To Top Animals can offer an extraordinary amount of emotional support. Beyond the pet-owner relationship that many of us have lovingly experienced, animals are sometimes used in therapeutic settings to help clients proceed through challenging emotional experiences. Equine-assisted psychotherapy allows for horses to be incorporated into the therapeutic process. With matured horses weighing anywhere in the range of 900 to 2,000 pounds or more, it might feel a bit intimidating to have such a large, majestic creature sitting in your therapy sessions. However, equine-assisted therapy is growing in popularity due to its experiential approach and some burgeoning evidence of its effectiveness. There are a variety of terms used to describe or reference equine-assisted psychotherapy, such as: Equine-assisted mental healthEquine-assisted counselingEquine facilitated psychotherapyEquine-assisted therapy The last term, equine-assisted therapy, can also often refer to other forms of therapy where horses are used, such as with occupational therapy. Illustration by JR Bee, Verywell Who Its For Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) can be used with a variety of populations and in a variety of therapeutic settings. In fact, horses can be used in counseling with individuals of all ages, even with families and groups. Equine-assisted psychotherapy is often not the sole form of treatment, but rather a complementary therapeutic service to be used in partnership with more traditional treatment. Offering a much different experience than traditional talk therapy, EAP brings people outdoors and offers an opportunity to use all senses while learning and processing through emotional challenges. Children and Teens Equine facilitated psychotherapy may be just as effective with children and teens as it is with adult clients. As with adults, children can experience challenges such as trauma, anxiety, depression, PTSD, and more. Equine therapy offers them a therapeutic environment that can feel less threatening and more inviting than a traditional talk therapy office. The majority of children participating in EAP are between the ages of 6 to 18 years old. They often find it difficult to open up and process painful emotions and experiences. Equine-assisted psychotherapy allows youth, and people of all ages, to work on issues such as: Emotional awarenessAssertivenessSocial skillsConfidenceTrust in selfTrust in othersEmpathyImpulse controlProblem-solving skillsDeveloping and maintaining relationships Benefits Although a variety of animals can be used in the psychotherapeutic process, horses offer unique traits that have come to make them a top choice for animal-assisted therapies. According to anxiety expert Dr. Robin Zasio, horses bring the following unique elements to the therapy process. Non-Judgmental and Unbiased As much as humans, especially therapists, do our best to offer a safe space for clients to explore deep emotional hurts and painful experiences, it can be uncomfortable for clients to openly share their thoughts. Building therapeutic rapport can take time, working toward building trust and practicing vulnerability in session. Having the horse present may offer a sense of peace, as they only will react to the clients behavior and emotions with no threat of bias or any judgment of their emotional experience. Feedback and Mirroring Horses are keen observers, vigilant and sensitive to movement and emotion. They often mirror a clients behavior or emotions, conveying understanding and connection that allows the client to feel safe. This also allows for clients to maintain a sense of self-awareness, using the horses behavior and interactions for feedback and opportunities to check in and process what is happening in the moment. Managing Vulnerability As clients might find themselves vulnerable when trying to open up about emotional challenges, past experiences, or life transitions, the horse can offer a reference point to use for processing. If something feels too painful to speak of, it can feel a bit easier for clients to process using the horse as an example, or to align their experience with the horses experiences in the moment. Externalizing the content in this way can make things easier to approach and process through. Conditions Equine therapy has some evidence supporting its effectiveness in helping to manage several conditions. Anxiety Anxiety affects more than 17 million Americans. Although a level of anxiety can be felt by many of us at points in our lives, especially around experiences involving change and uncertainty, there are times when people experience anxiety that meets clinical diagnostic criteria. Anxiety-related conditions include: Separation anxietySelective mutismSpecific phobiaSocial phobiaPanic disorderAgoraphobiaGeneralized anxiety disorder Many people who struggle with anxiety find themselves stuck in worry about their past and fearful about their future. As Dr. Zasio points out, working with a horse during the therapeutic process can create an opportunity for clients to ... stay present and focused on the task at hand. Since horses are vigilant and sensitive to behavior and emotions, they can sense danger and respond with a heightened awareness, which typically leads to a change in their behavior and possible attempts to get away. Clients who struggle with anxiety can relate to this developed ability to sense danger cues and respond in a heightened way. Processing challenges through the behavior of the horse can be easier for clients than speaking directly about their own personal experiences with anxiety. Another benefit to using equine-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of anxiety is to help clients practice vulnerability in a safe environment. As clients learn to interact with the horse and try new things, they are being asked to step out of their comfort zone with the help and support of the therapist and the horse. Clients can then process their experience, such as the fears and challenges, as well as any insights, discoveries or victories in those moments during therapy. PTSD Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can feel debilitating, marked by increased arousal and reactivity, intrusive memories and nightmares, and avoidance symptoms after a traumatic event. According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (AADA), it is estimated that 7.7 million people aged 18 or older struggle with PTSD. Children, teens, and adults can struggle with PTSD. Although people can experience a variety of traumatic events that could influence the development of PTSD, those who have experienced sexual assault, as well as veterans who have experienced combat, are populations who tend to have higher rates of the development of PTSD. The use of equine-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of PTSD for veterans is growing. Tess Hassett, a riding instructor at the Northern Virginia Therapeutic Riding Program, has a background in clinical psychology and is working with veterans using EAP. Describing her work with veterans, Hassett noted, A lot of them have said that after what theyve been through with their PTSD and depression, they never thought theyd be able to bond with someone again and feel that personal connection. But with their horse, theyre feeling that connection. Theyre able to take that into the rest of their lives and into their relationships. Addiction Treatment It is known that drug and alcohol addiction continues to rise and be problematic in the United States. The Center for Disease Control estimated that over 72,000 people died from a drug overdose in 2017. Many of those were due to the opioid epidemic, with approximately 50,000 deaths occurring as a result of opioid use. The need for effective therapies to help treat addiction is at an all-time high. Equine-assisted psychotherapy offers a unique approach to working with addiction and those with co-occurring conditions. A co-occurring condition, what used to be referred to as a dual diagnosis, describes someone who struggles with addiction in addition to having another mental health condition. This is quite common for those with substance abuse and addiction challenges, as the additional concerns can include a variety of things, such as anxiety, depression, OCD, or PTSD. The ultimate goal of addiction treatment is to help clients live sober, healthy and productive lives. Many times in addiction treatment, clients are also working hard to heal hurts within relationship dynamics, such as within a family or with their partner. Learning to trust, practice vulnerability and communicate effectively can be a challenge during this treatment process. EAP can help clients learn how to develop a sense of trust through their interactions with the horse, gaining a sense of safety, building relationship, encouraging clients to be vulnerable as they learn new things and experience interactions with their horse. ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is an additional area where equine-assisted psychotherapy can be helpful. Some report EAP is appealing to adults and youth with ADHD because it offers them an active, fun, hands-on experience. During equine-assisted therapy, the client is typically with a trained therapist, an equine specialist, and the horse. There is no riding necessarily involved with equine-assisted psychotherapy. Rather, the focus is on presence, attention, mindfulness, boundaries, social cues, and more. Kay Trotter, PhD, a licensed professional counselor, author, and founder of Equine Partners in Counseling (EPIC) Enterprises, was one of the first to dedicate research to the effectiveness of equine-assisted psychotherapy. Trotter found that introducing horses to the therapeutic process showed significantly increased positive behaviors while reducing negative behaviors. Her study was one of the first published on the effectiveness of EAP, published in the Journal for Creativity in Mental Health. It has been shown that clients can experience a variety of benefit from equine-assisted psychotherapy, such as: Reduced aggressionImproved focusImproved adjustment to routines and guidelinesIncrease in self-esteemIncrease in self-respectFriendships feeling less stressful For clients struggling with ADHD, the sense of accomplishment in an equine-assisted psychotherapy session can be of great benefit. As a licensed clinical social worker, Kit Muellner describes that ... clients feel that theyve achieved something on their own, rather than being told to do something by a parent or teacher. A 1,500-pound animal responds the way you want him to because you were able to focus. So youve accomplished something you wanted to do, versus something that somebody else wanted you to do. This sense of accomplishment can feel significant for anyone, especially someone who struggles with ADHD. In those moments, they are getting instant feedback from their horse and learning how to develop trust, communicate effectively, and how to work toward meeting a personal goal or milestone. Equine Assisted Therapists The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association (EAGALA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to setting the standard for professionals working with horses in a therapeutic setting. They offer training and have established a specialized certification process for those wishing to become a recognized, trained equine-assisted therapy professional. In addition to EAGALA, there are other programs dedicated to proper training and maintenance of standards for those working with clients in the field of EAP. To conduct therapy, regardless of whether you are providing equine-assisted therapy or not, you will need to contact your state regulatory board to learn about the educational and clinical requirements needed to become a licensed professional counselor or therapist in your state. Equine-assisted therapy is a particular style and specialization within the field of psychotherapy, with clinicians seeking and earning special training and certification related to the practice of EAP. Things to Consider There are some factors to consider when deciding to explore equine-assisted therapy for yourself or a loved one. Timing Depending on the challenges the client is facing, the timing may or may not be appropriate for EAP. For example, when someone is faced with addiction, they will need proper time to detox and establish compliance with an appropriate treatment program before possibly incorporating equine-assisted therapy services. Fear Although equine-assisted therapy has been shown to be helpful in the treatment of anxiety, a client may fear to be around a large horse and not feel motivated to attend this type of treatment. There may also be a traumatic memory involving animals that would prevent someone from being willing to participate. It is important to speak with a trained mental health provider to determine if you or your loved one are a good fit for equine-assisted therapy. Most programs will have an assessment process to determine if EAP is right for you before beginning any treatment. Cost Because equine-assisted psychotherapy is only more recently growing in popularity and gaining traction as an effective treatment for mental health and substance abuse, keep in mind that this service may not be covered by insurance benefits. The fees for EAP services will vary by location and can range in price. It is recommended that you contact your insurance company and your local equine therapy facility to discuss those details in advance. Using Therapy Dogs to Improve Mental and Physical Health
Thursday, May 21, 2020
This article explains substance abuse treatment which our company SAFE Foundation OP Detoxification and Substance Abuse Treatment Centre treat and educate individuals daily. The Brownsville community is associated with our facility which includes specialized treatment for our patients. Our effective treatment programs focuses on adult and youth, include several different types of interventions simultaneously, and provide intensive treatment. This proposal concludes with comments on improving substance abuse patients in the following three areas: treatment process, continuity of care, and the role of evaluation in policy and program development. SAFE FOUNDATION OP TREATMENT CENTER, BROOKLYN NEW YORK Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by compulsive, or uncontrollable, drug seeking and use despite harmful consequences and changes in the brain, which can be long lasting. These changes in the brain can lead to the harmful behaviors seen in people who use drugs. Drug addiction is also a relapsing disease. Relapse is the return to drug use after an attempt to stop. The path to drug addiction begins with the voluntary act of taking drugs. But over time, a person s ability to choose not to do so becomes compromised. Seeking and taking the drug becomes compulsive. This is mostly due to the effects of long-term drug exposure on brain function. Addiction affects parts of the brain involved in reward and motivation, learning and memory, and control overShow MoreRelatedThe Affordable Care Act And The Substance Abuse And Mental Health Service Administration?786 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSubstance abuse has been a known topic which has not been recognized and fully treated the way it should. Unlike general medicine, substance abuse treatments have their own facility and services apart from general settings, making it harder to get the recognition and the assistance needed to help the individuals in need. Both the Affordable Care Act and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration (SAMHSA), which is a part of the US Department of Health and Human Services have promotedRead MoreSubstance Abuse and the Elderly Essay example1705 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSubstance Abuse and the Elderly Substance abuse in the elderly exists just as in any other population. Many seniors develop substance abuse problems due to circumstances or situations due to the aging process. A report by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment/Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration indicates that 17% of adults age 60 and older are affected by alcohol abuse and abuse of legal drugs. The report also states that a third of those seniors who abuse substances didRead MoreWomen and Substance Abuse (Why?) Essay941 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages14 and the DSM IV defines substance abuse as Ã¢â¬Å"a maladaptive pattern of substance use manifested by recurrent and significant adverse consequences related to the repeated use of substancesÃ¢â¬ (Ashman, 4th edition 2013, pg. 442). When researching my paper I decided to find the differences, if any, between women and male substance abusers. While researching for the ERA capstone project we did for human services, I found that causes of addiction in women was due to poverty, abuse, lack of resources and otherRead MoreEssay about Adolescent Substance Abuse641 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAdolescent Substance Abuse Adolescent substance abuse continues to be epidemic in American society -- it crosses geographic, economic, gender, racial, and ethnic lines. In addition, more than a decade of national, state, and local prevention efforts have been minimally effective. It is a major problem that continues to escape our control. 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PO was on time and moderately participated in the group activity. PO engaged in the group discussion, and shared personal experience and insights related to the topic appropriately and honestly. PO completed the weekly treatment progress report, which indicated having attended 2 support meetings this pastRead MoreTreatment Of Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHistorically, substance abuse issues were thought of as a male problem (Bride 2011). Treatment center programs, methods and models are constructed around the male psychological needs rather than mix-gender needs. Literature shows that 12-step programs, therapy, individual counseling, group therapy and many other models provide to the increase in success stories however there is a lack in research focusing on the needs of the gender individual (Marsh, Cao, Shin 2009). Substance abuse treatment facilitiesRead MoreThe Substance Abuse/Life Circumstance Evaluation. The Salce1639 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesT HE SUBSTANCE ABUSE/LIFE CIRCUMSTANCE EVALUATION The SALCE model processes assessment of a characterÃ¢â¬â¢s substance use/abuse by way of analyzing a broad variety of behavior. This version simulates the techniques and tactics that might be hired inside the personal interview system. It focuses on, and examines, styles of client solutions as opposed to relying generally on the client answers to the SALCE assessment tool. The intention of this assessment is to reach at the of adapted action to accompanyRead MoreClient Biopsychosocial. Betty Simmons Is A 32 Year Old,1504 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescurrently experiencing substance abuse related problems, which she tested positive for meth and opiates during a recent urine analysis test upon admittance. A counselor has been assigned to BettyÃ¢â¬â¢s case. Presenting Problems Currently, Betty lives with relatives, and is seeking substance abuse treatment. Betty reports feelings of hopeless, feeling excessive guilt, and helplessness. Betty demonstrates pervasive sadness and explains how she has trouble focusing. Betty as well reports a decreased need forRead MoreDrug Policy And Funding Has Not Changed Much Over The Past Two Decades1505 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestoward a comprehensive approach; one that focuses on prevention, treatment and enforcement (p.1). One approach to this is allotting billions of dollars to the Federal Drug Control Budget. As of 2014, the majority of funding for this budget went into supply reduction (59.9%), demand reduction (40.1%), and domestic law enforcement (36.8%). Only 35 percent of the funding was provided for treatment of drug abuse, and 5.1 percent for drug abuse prevention (Sacco, 2014, p.16). These numbers have not changed
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
August 1914 Woodrow Wilson asked Americans to remain impartial to the war that broken out in Europe. In the beginning Wilson wanted to exemplify their democratic commitment to peace. Although the war challenged the neutrality of America. American farms and factories fed and armed both of Allied and Central Powers. America stayed neutral throughout the beginning even though Germany had sank a British passenger ship Ã¢â¬Å"LusitaniaÃ¢â¬ in May 1915, which killed 1,201 people, including 128 Americans. However this did outrage many Americans and Wilson sent a strong worded warning. Wilson was reelected in 1916 on the platform of neutrality. Later in the year, trying to stick to his plan of the nation remaining neutral he tried to broker peace betweenÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Given the risks, Wilson felt that they could no longer stand by and watch the continued German aggression. He believed that the nation had an obligation to step forward and fight for the principles upon which it had been founded. On April 4th the U.S. Senate voted in favor of war by 82 votes to 6. The House of Representatives delivered their own votes in favor of the war by 373 votes to 50. This formally entered the United States into the First World War. World War I was built up by many things; however the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, in Sarajevo June 1914 was what started the war. Austria-Hungarys reaction to the death of their heir was in the works for about three weeks. The Austro-Hungarians took this as an opportunity to exercise its authority upon the Serbians, wanting to crush any nationalist movement there. This was also an effort in cementing Austria-Hungarys influence in the Balkans. It did so by declaring an ultimatum to Serbia which, the extent of the demands was that the assassins be brought to justice. Sir Edward Grey, the British Secretary, commented that he had never before seen one State address to another independent State a document of so formidable a character. Austria-Hungary expected that Serbia would reject the terms of the ultimatum, thereby giving them a reason for launching a war against Serbia. However, Serbia had ties with Russia. WhileShow MoreRelatedOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 Pagesand Paul Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited David M. Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape Gerda Lerner, Fireweed: A Political Autobiography Allida M. Black, ed., Modern American Queer History Eric Sandweiss, St. Louis: The Evolution of an American Urban Landscape Sam Wineburg, Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the Future of Teaching the Past Sharon Hartman Strom, Political Woman: Florence Luscomb and the Legacy of Radical Reform
Derek Dougherty English 1302 Turman 11/1/2010 Creationism in the Classroom Many Christians believe that the earth and all things on it were created by God in six days. This is denied by the theory of evolution. Since the origins and development of life are an important part of the school science curriculum, the question of what schools should and should not be allowed to teach is an important one. We will write a custom essay sample on Creationism in the Classroom or any similar topic only for you Order Now There are many problems that present themselves when attempting to tackle the issue of teaching creationism in a public school setting. The first being, does creationism even qualify as a science? If it is not scientifically testable then it should not be taught alongside evolution in a classroom setting. However some creationist supporters claim that it is scientifically testable and that its theories are consistent with the scientific method. The next logical question to ask is should the controversy be taught in a science classroom setting? Many people are against the idea of teaching two conflicting ideas in the same classroom setting because of the implications it would have on the children. Others say if creationism is to be taught, it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be taught in a science classroom. If you have two conflicting ideas that cannot come to terms and be taught in harmony then one must be selected over the other. Creationism is not science; it is not scientifically testable, and does not belong in the science classroom. While both creationist and evolutionists have very convincing arguments, the question isnÃ¢â¬â¢t what is best morally or ethically for the children. The question is what will best prepare them for their continued education, and seeing how evolution is the basis for biology and a wealth of other sciences, creationism holds no ground and was even found unconstitutional to be taught. According to the Center for Science and Culture Intelligent design can best be described as Ã¢â¬Å"Certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection (CSC). Ã¢â¬ This idea is the basis of creationism, and stems from religious doctrine such as the bible that state the world was created in a matter of days rather than illions of years. Bibles and other holy doctrines are not allowed to be used by a teacher for any purpose, so regardless of anything else, it is against the law for a teacher to teach out of these doctrines. In the 1987 Supreme Court case of Edwards v. Aguillard it was decided that, Ã¢â¬Å"Educators may not teach, either as scientific fact o r even as an alternative or competing theory, the theory that humankind was created by a divine being. In science classes, educators must present only scientific explanations for life on earth and scientific critiques of evolution. The U. S. Supreme Court has held that it is unconstitutional to require educators who teach evolution also to teach creationism (Religion). Ã¢â¬ Justice William Brennan went on to write in the majority opinion that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦creationism could not be taught as an alternative to evolution because of its religiosity, but that teaching a variety of scientific theories about the origins of humankind to schoolchildren might be validly done with the clear secular intent of enhancing the effectiveness of science instruction (Moore 303). Creationists used this as an invitation and legal right for making scientific alternatives and teaching them in public school. The most popular of these Ã¢â¬Å"alternativesÃ¢â¬ was Intelligent Design (Moore 303). Justice BrennanÃ¢â¬â¢s intent in stating that teaching alternative theories could be done was not to invite creationists to make up more alternative theories. Brennan was simply stating that teaching a multitude of theories to children co uld be beneficial to them if it was clear that they were all equal and that one was not superior to the other. In response to the question, Can creationism be scientific? Theodore M. Drange had this to say, Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, creationism can be a scientific theory, because naturalistic creationism (in sharp contrast with theistic creationism) would be scientific if it were ever to be pursued by empirical method. That is not anything that has ever been done, but it is at least possible (Drange). Ã¢â¬ Drange implies that naturalistic creationism, which is a form of creationism that makes no reference to God or any supernatural beings, is scientific and thus could be scientifically testable. But given that no creationist wishes to teach creationism in this form, the fact remains that theistic creationism is not scientific. Drange explains that the reason theistic creationism is not scientific is due to the fact that it is theistic. It has nothing to do with the appeal to creation merely that theism is involved discredits it as scientifically provable theory (Drange). In 2000 the Kansas Board of Education removed Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦all references to the origin of humans and the age of the earth at the urging of conservative Christians (Moore 339). Not only was this a borderline illegal act, but it was irresponsible of the School district to give in to the public fantasy that creationism is okay to be taught in schools. In April of 2001 an article was put in the New York Times discussing the BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to overturn their previous ruling, Ã¢â¬Å"When Kansas School officials restored the theory of evolution to statewide education standards a few weeks ago, biologists might have been inclined to declare victory over creationism. Instead, some evolutionists say, the latter stages of the battle in Kansas, along with new efforts in Michigan and Pennsylvania as well as in a number of universities and even in Washington, suggest that the issue is far from settled (Glanz). Ã¢â¬ We are not here to argue the religious implications of discrediting creationism as a viable alternative to evolution. It has been proven and reinforced by the Supreme Court that creationism has no place alongside evolution in Science. Teaching a theory that discredits the rest of the teaching in that science class is preposterous. The only part of evolution that is a theory is why it occurs, not how it occurs, whereas creationism in itself is a theory that has very little watertight evidence to support its claims. The bottom line is that creationism has a place in the lives of our children, but that place is not in the science classroom or any classroom in a state funded school. We risk undermining our constitutional right to separation of church and state if we were to teach creationism as an alternative or even alongside evolution. The battle to keep creationism out of the classroom has already been won, but the war between the two sides still rages on. Even today there are laws trying to be enacted to push Creationism into schools. We must remain vigilant and wary of these laws that are meant to undermine our rights, and remind ourselves that this issue isnÃ¢â¬â¢t about what you should believe; itÃ¢â¬â¢s about what we should teach. Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"CSC Ã¢â¬â Top Questions. Ã¢â¬ Discovery Institute. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. How to cite Creationism in the Classroom, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Introduction In the rapidly developing modern world, the process of globalization is the defining factor and the key feature of international relations. Economies, societies, and whole cultures merge and integrate as a result of the ever-growing system of global communication and trade. The decisive role in the process of globalization is played by economic factors: international business, foreign investment, intellectual and technological exchange, Ã¢â¬â all these components contribute to globalization.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on International Management Report: Cultural Profiling of USA and India specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More More and more nations are becoming involved into international interaction and are consequently facing the communicational challenges set by the traditional cultural barriers. Misunderstandings emerge within multinational teams since their members are simply unaware of differen t perceptions and expectations inherent in their foreign colleaguesÃ¢â¬â¢ philosophy of life and cultural outlook. When maintaining international business communication it is vital to be aware of the multiple stylistic peculiarities inherent in communicative processes of various nations and cultures. One of the most frequent cultural collisions occurs between the representatives of the East and the West, since they bear diametrically opposite values and communicational standards. As an example, business communication should be planned especially cautiously between the representatives of India and the USA, since those two nations demonstrate typical instances of high-context culture and low-context culture, with all the ensuing consequences (cf. Fig.1). Complex approach to cultural differences Cultural differences have been one of the major issues in research on business communication. Success or failure in international business is defined by the level of partnersÃ¢â¬â¢ flexibil ity, openness, and readiness to accept and compromise with each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural standards. Locker and Kienzler (2008) define a Ã¢â¬Å"successful international communicatorÃ¢â¬ as a person who is Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ aware of the values, beliefs, and practices in other cultures; sensitive to differences among individuals within a culture; aware that his or her preferred values and behaviors are influenced by culture and are not necessarily Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ ; sensitive to verbal and nonverbal behavior; flexible and open to changeÃ¢â¬ (p.Ã 432). Therefore, a complex approach including a whole array of factors is required when investigating the cultural peculiarities of international partners. One of the comprehensive approaches suggested in the research literature is Solomon and SchellÃ¢â¬â¢s (2009) scheme comprising seven key characteristics (or Ã¢â¬Å"dimensionsÃ¢â¬ ) of cross-cultural communication: hierarchy and egalitarianism; group focus; relationships; communicat ion styles; time orientation; change tolerance; and motivation or work-life balance (p. 53).Advertising Looking for report on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consideration for and attention to those dimensions provide the prospective international business partners with the necessary background for successful communication of their cultures. Hereinafter the business cultures of USA and India are compared and contrasted in terms of the characteristics mentioned. Hierarchy and egalitarianism In the organization of the whole society, the principles of hierarchy and egalitarianism play a defining role. Those two approaches to modeling social relations represent antipodes of social perception of power and authority. In hierarchical societies organizational and social structures are characterized by rigid stratification, which presupposes limited communication between representatives of different strata (Ste ers at al., 2010, p. 212). Indian society is an obvious example of such hierarchy, with its caste system quoted not infrequently but actually playing a minor role in business communication (Katz, 2008a, p. 1). What matters more is their attitude to social class as the defining factor in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life success or failure, reflecting the Indian reverence to fatalism (Lewis, 2000, p. 341). Transition between social classes is mostly impossible, and therefore oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family status is the criterion of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishments. Status should be accepted with deference and dignified by appropriate dress and behavior (Solomon and Shell, 2009, pp. 79Ã¢â¬â80). On the other hand, American society is marked by an unprecedented egalitarianism: everyone is equal and possesses equal opportunities for success. Rags-to-riches stories and tales of self-made men form the Americans strongly egalitarian mindset and result in their relative disregard for initial social stratification (Solo mon and Shell, 2009, p. 79). Relationships and group focus Resulting from the aforementioned cultural standard are the peculiarities of relationships characterizing the two cultures. In the United States, individualism is a very strong tendency in business (Locker and Kienzler, 2008, p. 438). During negotiations managers tend to take decisions independently of the main office, which could hardly be acceptable in an Indian society (Lewis, 2000, p. 167; Katz, 2008b, p.Ã 3). Indian business is concentrated within a family and works for the whole family interest; family honor is what matters most, and the whole business turns around it (Lewis, 2000, p. 341). This attitude to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s business as equaled to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s extended family is contrasted by the American view of business objective: for them, the main purpose of doing business is making as much profit as possible in the shortest time period (Lewis, 2000, p. 167). Such uncomplicated philosophy of American business aimed at purely materialistic goals entails certain harshness and haste in American way of conducting deals: Ã¢â¬Ëfirst come first servedÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëtime is moneyÃ¢â¬â¢ are the quotes that characterize the US business attitudes best.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on International Management Report: Cultural Profiling of USA and India specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Time orientation Attitudes to time and ways of handling time issues represent another stumbling block for cross-cultural communication between the Indian and the American businesses. American Ã¢â¬Ëtime is moneyÃ¢â¬â¢ policy results in the high demands for punctuality and fast efficient action within the given time limits. Being on time and meeting deadlines is a must, since otherwise the AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s tight schedule would be upset, diminishing the chances for profit. On the contrary, the Indians do not work by the clock, and their notion of time is quite relaxed. This is partially explainable by the religious idea of reincarnation popular in the Indian culture: since everything can reoccur (even if in another life), there is no need to cease the moment immediately (Lewis, 2000, p. 342). Meetings can be postponed, rescheduled, and held in a relaxed way without pressure for time and speed. If an Indian partner asks to wait for two minutes before he settles another issue, one should not be surprised that those two minutes turn into hours at least. This is yet another example of the Indian view of time, as well as it is an illustration of their way of handling business. Communication styles In general, the Indian business culture operates in the framework of cooperativeness and helpfulness. Therefore, it dictates the rule of saying Ã¢â¬ËyesÃ¢â¬â¢ to a request even if there is hardly a possibility to fulfill what is asked (Steers et al., 2010, p. 213). Afterwards the Indian will hold the business up and avoid any dir ect action or movement till it becomes obvious that the promise will never be kept at all. Unhurriedness characterizes the Indian negotiating style in general. Respecting the presenter, the Indians are always Ã¢â¬Å"ready to listen at length to an eloquent, respectful speakerÃ¢â¬ (Lewis, 2000, p. 343; cf. Fig. 2). They would start negotiations with a view to long verbose discussions, employing Ã¢â¬Å"long, indirect, poetic sentencesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"elegant languageÃ¢â¬ (Locker and Kienzler, 2008, p. 438). Their statements are figural and the florid wording needs to be deciphered for clarity. This peculiarity of the Indian communication style is totally opposed by the rapid, concrete, and straightforward flow of American speech. Striving to get their deals done as fast as possible, the impatient American businessmen cannot tolerate any lulls or long pauses in the conversation. They discharge a stream of information at their interlocutors and constantly pressure them by inquir ing whether they got a deal: first comes the deal, while discussing the details is postponed for later (Lewis, 2000, p. 168). Recommendations From all the aforementioned fact it becomes obvious that successful cross-cultural communication between the Indian and the American business partners is endangered by a whole range of cultural discrepancies.Advertising Looking for report on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In order to minimize the risks of failure, it is significant to work out compromising strategies that would mitigate the opposition between the cultures and ensure an efficient cooperation between the international teams. Bearing in mind the peculiarities of the Indian business culture, the American managers could undertake the following steps. Addressing hierarchy First, with regard to the importance of hierarchy and group in the Indian society, it would be advisable to organize a solidary and well-knit team of negotiators. Leaving aside the individualistic trends of American management, such team would benefit the overall image of the negotiation process and contribute to the Indian partyÃ¢â¬â¢s respect for the American company. The external indication of hierarchical importance should not be neglected either: the generally informal, casual style of American clothing should be changed to a more appropriate outfit that would emphasize the authority and significance of the negotia ting team members. Addressing family significance Second, considering the ultimate significance of family relations for the Indian society, it would be advisable not only to entertain the Indian guests in public places but also to introduce them to the family circle of the American negotiating party. Family hospitality and generosity make the Indians feel welcome and at ease with the foreign reality, therefore the level of intimacy may be as high as inviting the Indian guests to a personal family party on the occasion of a birthday anniversary or a wedding reception. Otherwise, keeping the Indians out of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family may be regarded as disregard and lack of interest in the potential business partner. Addressing time issues Third, since time perception is diametrically opposite in Indian and American cultures, time issues should be taken care of in advance. A set of agreements about timeliness should be accepted by the parties, so that the Indian party is constantly reminded a bout what exactly should be done in a given period of time. On the other hand, the schedule should be flexible enough to allow for some lengthy discussions which would let Indian negotiators feel confident of the negotiations success. In this connection it is also reasonable to be prepared for discussing the details in-depth before concluding the deal. Addressing communication style Last but not least, bearing in mind the IndianÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to politeness and responsiveness rather than assertiveness and pressure, it is important to recognize that not all the affirmative responses from the Indian party mean the positive outcome of their words. Therefore, a background research should be conducted to ensure that the Indian party can actually fulfill the assumed obligations. Moreover, knowing that oral commitments are more significant to the Indian culture than written ones, it is vital to treat all the verbal agreements with utmost care, in order to avoid future misunderstandings. Conclusion As it appears, cross-cultural communication presents a stumbling point for businesses around the world. In case with American and Indian cooperation, the communication process is complicated by a whole set of discrepancies ranging from social perceptions of hierarch to time orientation. Therefore, various precautionary measures are advisable for the American party to take in order to ensure efficient and successful business negotiation. References Katz, L. (2008a) Negotiating international business Ã¢â¬â India. Web. Katz, L. (2008b) Negotiating international business Ã¢â¬â United States. Web. Lewis, A. D. (2000) When cultures collide: Managing successfully across cultures. 2nd edition. London, Nicholas Brealey Publishing. Locker, K. O. Kienzler, D. S. (2008) Business and administrative communication. New York (NY), McGraw Hill / Irwin. Solomon, C. Schell, M. S. (2009) Managing across cultures: The 7 keys to doing business with a global mindset. Hightstown (NJ), M cGraw Hill Education. Steers, R. M., Sanchez-Runde, C. Nardon, L. (2010) Management across cultures: Challenges and strategies. New York (NY), Cambridge University Press. Appendices Fig. 1. Views of communication in high- and low-context cultures. Cited in: Locker, K. O. Kienzler, D. S. (2008) Business and administrative communication. New York (NY), McGraw Hill / Irwin. P. 436. Fig. 2. The Indian listening habits. Source: Lewis, A. D. (2000) When cultures collide: Managing successfully across cultures. 2nd edition. London, Nicholas Brealey Publishing. P. 343. 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Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Intervention A plan for intervention deals with theories of strain labeling association social control essays
Intervention A plan for intervention deals with theories of strain labeling association social control essays Take-home Midterm Exam Part Two In order to prevent children from growing up in environments that produce deviant behavior we can take certain crucial steps while they are still receptive to social molding. Through the plan of intervention that I propose, we are assured that the next generation of our societys children will not be plagued by the problems described by the theories of Labeling, Differential Association, Social Control, and Strain. The program I propose involves inserting highly-trained mentors into our elementary, junior high, and high schools. The objective is to have these mentors, or role models, develop a personal relationship with their students, and through that relationship they will provide the guidance, support, and counseling that each student requires. As there are no funding limitations, it is possible to have the abundant amount of mentors that is necessary. With each mentor dedicated to his group of about 10 students, an ample amount of time and attention is guaranteed to each student. The mentor, who must first pursue a college education in the areas of psychology, sociology, and child development, as well as specialized mentor training will be well-suited and educated to help guide the children into good social standing. Each mentor will first be introduced to their group of children at the beginning of each educational institution (i.e. elementary school, junior high, high school), and then stay dedicated to that group for the remainder of their stay at the institution. The point of this aspect of the program is to provide time for the mentor and group to develop a trusting and respectful relationship; hopefully, a bond will develop between each member of the group, as well as between each member and the mentor. From the theory of Differential Association, we learn that people are often pushed into d ...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Historical Poems of Social Protest and Revolution Nearly 175 years ago Percy Bysshe Shelley said, in his Defence of Poetry, that Ã¢â¬Å"poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world.Ã¢â¬ In the years since, many poets have taken that role to heart, right up to the present day. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ve been rabble-rousers and protesters, revolutionaries and yes, sometimes, lawmakers. Poets have commented on the events of the day, giving voice to the oppressed and downtrodden, immortalized rebels, and campaigned for social change.Ã Looking back to the headwaters of this river of protest poetry, weÃ¢â¬â¢ve gathered a collection of classic poems regarding protest and revolution, beginning with ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s own Ã¢â¬Å"The Masque of Anarchy.Ã¢â¬ Ã Percy Bysshe Shelley:Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The Masque of AnarchyÃ¢â¬ (published inÃ 1832; Shelley died in 1822) This poetic fountain of outrage was prompted by the infamous Peterloo Massacre of 1819 in Manchester, England. The massacre began as a peaceful protest of pro-democracy and anti-poverty and ended with at least 18 deaths and over 700 serious injuries. Within those numbers were innocents; women and children. Two centuries later the poem retains its power. Shelleys moving poem is an epic 91 verses, each of four or five lines a piece. It is brilliantly written and mirrors the intensity of the 39th and 40th stanzas:Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã XXXIX.What is Freedom?- ye can tellThat which slavery is, too well- For its very name has grownTo an echo of your own.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã XL.Ã¢â¬â¢Tis to work and have such payAs just keeps life from day to dayIn your limbs, as in a cellFor the tyrantsÃ¢â¬â¢ use to dwell, Percy Bysshe Shelley:Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Song to the Men of EnglandÃ¢â¬ (published by Mrs. Mary Shelley in The Poetical Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley inÃ 1839) In this classic, Shelley employs his pen to speak specifically to the workers of England. Again, his anger is felt in every line and it is clear that he is tormented by the oppression he sees of the middle class. Song to the Men of England is written simply, it was designed to appeal to the less educated of Englands society; the workers, the drones, the people who fed the wealth of the tyrants. The eight stanzas of the poem are four lines each and follow a rhythmic AABB song-like format. In the second stanza, Shelley tries to wake up the workers to the plight they may not see: Wherefore feed and clothe and saveFrom the cradle to the graveThose ungrateful drones who wouldDrain your sweat- nay, drink your blood? By the sixth stanza, Shelley is calling the people to rise up much like the French did in the revolution a few decades prior: Sow seed- but let no tyrant reap:Find wealth- let no imposter heap:Weave robes- let not the idle wear:Forge arms- in your defence to bear. William Wordsworth:Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The Prelude, or, Growth of a PoetÃ¢â¬â¢s MindÃ¢â¬ Books 9 and 10, Residence in France (published in 1850, the year of the poets death) Of the 14 books that poetically detail Wordsworths life, Books 9 and 10 regard his time in France during the French Revolution. A young man in his late 20s, the turmoil took a great toll on this otherwise home-bodied Englishman. In Book 9, Woodsworth writes passionately: A light, a cruel, and vain world cut offFrom the natural inlets of just sentiment,From lowly sympathy and chastening truth;Where good and evil interchange their names,And thirst for bloody spoils abroad is paired Walt Whitman:Ã Ã¢â¬Å"To a FoilÃ¢â¬â¢d European RevolutionaireÃ¢â¬ (fromÃ Leaves of Grass,Ã first published in the 1871-72 edition with another edition published in 1881) One of Whitmans most famous collections of poetry, Leaves of Grass was a lifetime work that the poet edited and published a decade after its initial release. Within this is are the revolutionary words ofÃ Ã¢â¬Å"To a FoilÃ¢â¬â¢d European Revolutionaire.Ã¢â¬ Though its unclear whom Whitman is speaking to, his ability to spark courage and resilience in the revolutionaries of Europe remains a powerful truth. As the poem begins, there is no doubting the poets passion. We only wonder what sparked such embroiled words. Courage yet, my brother or my sister!Keep on- Liberty is to be subservÃ¢â¬â¢d whatever occurs;That is nothing that is quellÃ¢â¬â¢d by one or two failures, or any number of failures,Or by the indifference or ingratitude of the people, or by any unfaithfulness,Or the show of the tushes of power, soldiers, cannon, penal statutes. Paul Laurence Dunbar,Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The Haunted OakÃ¢â¬ A haunting poem written in 1903, Dunbar takes on the strong subject of lynching and Southern justice in The Haunted Oak. He views the matter through the thoughts of the oak tree employed in the matter. The thirteenth stanza may be the most revealing: I feel the rope against my bark,And the weight of him in my grain,I feel in the throe of his final woeThe touch of my own last pain. More Revolutionary Poetry Poetry is the perfect venue for social protest no matter the subject. In your studies, be sure to read these classics to get a better sense of the roots of revolutionary poetry. Edwin Markham,Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The Man With the HoeÃ¢â¬ -Ã Inspired by Jean-FranÃ §ois MilletÃ¢â¬â¢s painting Man with a Hoe,Ã¢â¬ this poem was originally published in the San FranciscoÃ Examiner inÃ 1899. Upton Sinclair noted in The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social Protest that Markhams poemÃ becameÃ Ã¢â¬Å"the battle-cry of the next thousand years.Ã¢â¬ Truly, it speaks to hard labor and the working man.Ella Wheeler Wilcox, Ã¢â¬Å"ProtestÃ¢â¬ - From Poems of Purpose, published in 1916, this poem embodies the spirit of protest no matter the cause. To speak up and show your bravery against those who cause suffering, Wilcoxs words are timeless.Carl Sandburg,Ã Ã¢â¬Å"I Am the People, the MobÃ¢â¬ -Ã Also from a 1916 collection of poetry,Ã Chicago Poems, Sandburg reinforces the thoughts of Wilcox. He speaks of the power of the people - the mob - the crowd - the mass and the ability to remember wrongs while learning a better way.Carl Sandburg,Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The Mayor of GaryÃ¢â¬ -Ã A free-form verse that appeared in 1922s Smoke and Steel, this poem looks at the Gary, Indiana of 1915. The 12-hour day and the 7-day week of the workers drew a sharp contrast to Garys trim and proper mayor who had time for a shampoo and shave.